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Posts Tagged ‘VMware Harbor’

Adding a private Docker registry to a PKS 1.5 Windows Kubernetes cluster

09/10/2019 Comments off

Pivotal Container Service (PKS) 1.5 and Kubernetes 1.14 bring *beta* support for Workers running Windows.  This means that we can provide the advantages of Kubernetes to a huge array of applications running on Windows.  I see this especially useful for Windows applications that you don’t have the source code for and/or do not want to invest in reworking it for .NET core or languages that run on Linux.

In nearly all cases, you’ll need an image with your applications’ dependencies or configuration and in the real world, we don’t want those in the public space like dockerhub.  Enter Private Docker Repositories.

PKS Enterprise includes VMware Harbor as a private registry, it’s very easy to deploy alongside PKS and provides a lot of important functionality.  The Harbor interface uses TLS/SSL; you may use a self-signed, enterprise PKI-signed or public CA-signed certificate.  If you chose to not use a public CA-signed certificate ($!), the self-signed or PKI-signed certificate must be trusted by the docker engine on each Kubernetes worker node.

Clusters based on Ubuntu Xenial Stemcells:

  • The operator/administrator simply puts the CA certificate into the “Trusted Certificates” box of the Security section in Ops Manager.
  • When BOSH creates the VMs for kubernetes clusters, the trusted certificates are added to the certificate store automatically.
  • If using an enterprise PKI where all of the internal certificates are signed by the Enterprise CA, this method makes it very easy to trust and “un-trust” CAs.

Clusters based on Windows 2019 Stemcells:

This is one of those tasks that is easier to perform on Linux that it is on Windows.  Unfortunately, Windows does not automatically add the Trusted Certificates from Ops Manager to the certificate store, so extra steps are required.

    1. Obtain the Registry CA Certificate.  In Harbor, you may click the “REGISTRY CERTIFICATE” link while in a Project.  Save the certificate to where the BOSH cli is installed (Ops Manager typically).
    2.  Connect BOSH cli to director.  This may be done on the Ops Manager.
    3. List BOSH-managed vms to identify the service_instance deployment corresponding to the targeted K8s cluster by matching the VM IP address to the IP address of the master node as reported by PKS cluster.
    4. Run this command to copy the certificate to the Windows worker
      bosh -e ENV -d DEPLOYMENT scp root.cer WINDOWS-WORKER:/
      • ENV – your environment alias in the BOSH cli
      • DEPLOYMENT – the BOSH deployment that corresponds to the k8s cluster; ex: service-instance_921bd35d-c46d-4e7a-a289-b577ff743e15
      • WINDOWS-WORKER – the instance name of the specific Windows worker VM; ex: windows-worker/277536dd-a7e6-446b-acf7-97770be18144

      This command copies the local file named root.cer to the root folder on the Windows VM

    5. Use BOSH to SSH into the Windows Worker.
      bosh -e ENV -d DEPLOYMENT ssh WINDOWS-WORKER
      • ENV – your environment alias in the BOSH cli
      • DEPLOYMENT – the BOSH deployment that corresponds to the k8s cluster; ex: service-instance_921bd35d-c46d-4e7a-a289-b577ff743e15
      • WINDOWS-WORKER – the instance name of the specific Windows worker VM; ex: windows-worker/277536dd-a7e6-446b-acf7-97770be18144

      SSH into Windows node, notice root.cer on the filesystem

    6. In the Windows SSH session run “powershell.exe” to enter powershell
    7. At the PS prompt, enter
      Import-certificate -filepath .\root.cer -CertStoreLocation Cert:\LocalMachine\Root

      The example above imports the local file “root.cer” into the Trusted Root Certificate Store

    8. Type “exit” twice to exit PS and SSH
    9. Repeat steps 5-8 for each worker node.

Add docker-registry secret to k8s cluster

Whether the k8s cluster is running Windows workers or not, you’ll want to add credentials for authenticating to harbor.  These credentials are stored in a secret. To add the secret, use this command:

kubectl create secret docker-registry harbor \
--docker-server=HARBOR_FQDN \
--docker-username=HARBOR_USER \
--docker-password=USER_PASS \
--docker-email=USER_EMAIL
  • HARBOR_FQDN – FQDN for local/private Harbor registry
  • HARBOR_USER – name of user in Harbor with access to project and repos containing the desired images
  • USER_PASS – username for the above account
  • USER_EMAIL – email adddress for the above account

Note that this secret is namespaced; it needs to be added to the namespace of the deployments that will reference it

More info

Here’s an example deployment yaml for a Windows K8s cluster that uses a local private docker registry.  Note that Windows clusters cannot leverage NSX-T yet, so this example uses a NodePort to expose the service.

Automating PKS Upgrades

05/22/2018 Comments off

Last night, Pivotal announced new versions of PKS and Harbor, so I thought it’s time to simplify the upgrade process. Here is a concourse pipeline that essentially aggregates the upgrade-tile pipeline so that PKS and Harbor are upgraded in one go.

What it does:

  1. Runs on a schedule – you set the time and days it may run
  2. Downloads the latest version of PKS and Harbor from Pivnet- you set the major.minor version range
  3. Uploads the PKS and Harbor releases to your BOSH director
  4. Determines whether the new release is missing a stemcell, downloads it from PivNet and uploads it to BOSH director
  5. Stages the tiles/releases
  6. Applies changes

What you need:

  1. A working Concourse instance that is able to reach the Internet to pull down the binaries and repo
  2. The fly cli and credentials for your Concourse.
  3. A token from your PivNet account
  4. An instance of PKS 1.0.2 or 1.0.3 AND Harbor 1.4.x deployed on Ops Manager
  5. Credentials for your Ops Manager
  6. (optional) A token from your GitHub account

How to use the pipeline:

  1. Download params.yml and pipeline.yml from here.
  2. Edit the params.yml by replacing the values in double-parentheses with the actual value. Each line has a bit explaining what it’s expecting.  For example, ((ops_mgr_host)) becomes opsmgr.pcf1.domain.local
    • Remove the parens
    • If you have a GitHub Token, pop that value in, otherwise remove ((github_token))
    • The current pks_major_minor_version regex will get the latest 1.0.x.  If you want to pin it to a specific version, or when PKS 1.1.x is available, you can make those changes here.
    • The ops_mgr_usr and ops_mgr_pwd credentials are those you use to logon to Ops Manager itself.  Typically set when the Ops Manager OVA is deployed.
    • The schedule params should be adjusted to a convenient time to apply the upgrade.  Remember that in addition to the PKS Service being offline (it’s a singleton) during the upgrade, your Kubernetes clusters may be affected if you have the “Upgrade all Clusters” errand set to run in the PKS configuration, so schedule wisely!

  3. Open your cli and login to concourse with fly

    fly -t concourse login -c http://concourse.domain.local:8080 -u username -p password

  4. Set the new pipeline. Here, I’m naming the pipeline “PKS_Upgrade”. You’ll pass the pipeline.yml with the “-c” param and your edited params.yml with the “-l” param

    fly -t concourse sp -p PKS_Upgrade -c pipeline.yml -l params.yml

    Answer “y” to “Apply Configuration”…

  5. Unpause the pipeline so it can run when in the scheduled window

    fly -t concourse up -p PKS_Upgrade

  6. Login to the Concourse web to see our shiny new pipeline!

    If you don’t want to deal with the schedule and simply want it to upgrade on-demand, use the pipeline-nosched.yml instead of pipeline.yml, just be aware that when you unpause the pipeline, it’ll start doing its thing.  YMMV, but for me, it took about 8 minutes to complete the upgrade.

Behind the scenes
It’s not immediately obvious how the pipeline does what it does. When I first started out, I found it frustrating that there just isn’t much to the pipeline itself. To that end, I tried making pipelines that were entirely self-contained. This was good in that you can read the pipeline and see everything it’s doing; plus it can be made to run in an air-gapped environment. The downside is that there is no separation, one error in any task and you’ll have to edit the whole pipeline file.
As I learned a little more and poked around in what others were doing, it made sense to split the “tasks” out, keep them in a GitHub public repo and pull it down to run on-demand.

Pipelines generally have two main sections; resources and jobs.
Resources are objects that are used by jobs. In this case, the binary installation files, a zip of the GitHub repo and the schedule are resources.
Jobs are (essentially) made up of plans and plans have tasks.
Each task in most pipelines uses another source yml. This task.yml will indicate which image concourse should build a container from and what it should do on that container (typically, run a script). All of these task components are in the GitHub repo, so when the pipeline job runs, it clones the repo and runs the appropriate task script in a container built on an image pulled from dockerhub.

More info
I’ve got a several pipelines in the repo.   Some of them do what they’re supposed to. 🙂 Most of them are derived from others’ work, so many thanks to Pivotal Services and Sabha Parameswaran